Let’s Make a Meal!

Earlier in the month, we explored starting the day with a healthy breakfast. Then we looked at providing a lunch that would sustain your child with ADHD throughout the school day and help avoid the afternoon slump. Now let’s take a look at involving your little one in the meal making process.

For some of us, meal preparation comes naturally. We feel we can beat even the best home cook on Gordon Ramsay’s television show, MasterChef. However, some of us dread the thought putting together the evening meal for the family. Whether you can easily put together the perfect well-balanced meal or struggle to put something edible on the table each night, we all have to start somewhere.

The good news is, just like any other skill, cooking can be taught. And just like cognitive training for people struggling with attention, you’ll get better the more you practice.

Cooking with someone with ADHD can be a challenge. With short attention spans, things will have to be kept simple and quick. Also, keep in mind that nutritionists recommend a diet high in protein and complex carbohydrates while keeping the diet low in refined sugars.

Here are some quick and easy recipes that will provide the right nutrition and start your child on the road to becoming a great home cook.  You will find that cooking with your child can be a great learning experience.  Your child will learn critical skills such as planning, time management, counting, fractions, money, weighing, measuring, and problem solving!

When my children were growing up, I started teaching them to cook at an early age. We started with simple things like making toast. Then we graduated to helping stir things (this gets a little messy, but be patient, it gets better). Eventually I tasked each of my sons with planning and helping prepare one meal a week for the family. Be prepared, you may be eating hot dogs with mac and cheese at first, or maybe PB&J, but this too shall pass.

As time went on, they both became more adventurous with their meal prep and it actually became a friendly competition on who could come up with the better meal. I have to say that after a couple of years, their meals were better than mine at times.  Plus it gave me a break from having to come up with something for dinner.

For teenagers, you can take it a step further. The Food Network’s show Chopped features chefs having to prepare meals from five random ingredients given to them in a basket. Imagine how fun it would be to give your budding chef random ingredients, and have them create a meal in an hour? On the show, the chefs are faced with some strange ingredients, for instance chicken in a can, or gummy worms paired with a pork loin. So be careful what you put in your mystery basket—remember you have to eat it!

For more information on health and nutrition Click Here

Watch Play Attention’s recorded webinar on nutrition here

 

 

 

Healthy School Lunches

Healthy School Lunches

Earlier this month I wrote about the benefits of a healthy breakfast. It is equally as important to provide your child with a healthy lunch to continue to fuel their body throughout the day.

The Internet does not lack evidence that typical school lunches tend to be unhealthy. While it may meet nutritional requirements, school lunches are laden with salt, fat, and calories. Because of the large volume needed to serve the average school’s population, cheaper grade products are used to feed the masses. Animal-based products used in the school-provided lunches are generally processed and contain a great deal of sodium, sugar, and fat.

Granted, First Lady Michelle Obama has heightened awareness with her Let’s Move campaign. With more than 32 million children participating in the National School Lunch Program, the First Lady is passionate about providing healthier options for these students. When she started Let’s Move in February 2010, she was quoted as saying, “The physical and emotional health of an entire generation and the economic health and security of our nation is at stake.”

If you consider the research done on food options and AD/HD, every meal should be considered a “make or break” for your child’s school day. Lunches that are high in protein and complex carbohydrates allow AD/HD students to focus better in the classroom and avoid the afternoon slump.

Lunches supplied from home allow better control. There are a lot of foods that come prepared for ease in putting together healthy options. It’s important when picking out lunch options that you read the ingredients. It is best to avoid prepared foods that are high in salt and sugar and contain a lot of preservatives.

In her blog, Register Dietician Rachel Brandies, MS, RD offers some really great ideas for healthy after school snacks. If you keep healthy snack options in your home and avoid buying the not-so-healthy snacks, you’ll teach your child and yourself to eat healthier. Choose frozen juice bars or yogurt over ice cream. Choose a cup full of high protein cereal over cookies.

For more information on Health and AD/HD, join Gay Russell, LCSW for a FREE webinar entitled Fueling our Children for Physical, Mental, and Emotional Health, Combating the A’s with Nutrition: Anxiety, ADHD, Autism, Asperger’s, Anger, & Academic Challenges. The webinar is scheduled for January 22, 2015 at 11:00 am EST. Click here to register.

Starting Right: A Healthy Breakfast

Starting Right: A Healthy Breakfast

Breakfast is claimed to be the most important meal of the day. Yet research shows that 31 million US citizens skip this meal every day. Reasons vary from not enough time to weight loss. With growing brains and bodies, children need to continually refuel their bodies for good development. Research shows that children who eat breakfast come to school on time and are more successful.

How often do we get up and pour our favorite cereal into a bowl for our child or ourselves. While convenient, this sugary concoction may exacerbate the symptoms of AD/HD. It makes simple sense that adding sugar and carbohydrates may give that initial burst of energy, but that’s not exactly what one wants for someone who has a difficult time controlling their behavior.

Many authorities find that a breakfast high in protein is most beneficial for people with attention challenges. In her article in Additude magazine by food and nutrition researcher Laura Stevens offers her take on the benefits of the right breakfast for people with AD/HD.

Click here to attend a free, health webinar on Thursday, January 22nd @ 11:00 AM EST.
Topic: Fueling our Children for Physical, Mental, and Emotional Health.  Combating the A’s with Nutrition:  Anxiety, ADHD, Autism, Asperger’s, Anger,  & Academic challenges.

So how does one create the perfect protein breakfast on an already hectic morning? There are many ways to incorporate protein. Some easy make-ahead ideas can be found on the Internet. With a little planning, these high-protein breakfast ideas become “grab and go” for hectic weekday mornings.

It makes sense to start each day in the best possible way. What we put into our bodies is closely related to how we perform throughout the day, but diet alone is not the complete answer to the test. Cognitive attention training along with a healthy diet will create long lasting results when battling AD/HD. Play Attention, the world leader in feedback-based attention training, along with a high protein breakfast, will set anyone up for success.

Barb Rollar

 

Introducing Dear Sheer Genius

Dear Sheer Genius,

We are pleased to introduce our new advice column, Dear Sheer Genius. This advice column will be sent out every week and we invite all of you to write to our very own attention specialist, Sheer Genius. You may write Sheer Genius and ask questions about Play Attention, attention problems, education, behavior shaping, parenting concerns, peer relationships etc.!

Sheer Genius is here to help!

Who is Sheer Genius?

Sheer Genius is the virtual member of the Play Attention family. His outstanding knowledge and experience is incorporated into Play Attention to help guide you through our program every step of the way!

How do I submit a question?

To submit your question please click here or email sheergenius@playattention.net. If your question is selected you will receive a personal email from Sheer Genius and your question/answer will be posted on our website as well as our Facebook page. We will only use your first name if you provide it.

Sheer Genius looks forward to hearing from you!

Photo: Introducing Dear Sheer Genius,
We are pleased to introduce our new advice column, Dear Sheer Genius.  This advice column will be sent out every week and we invite all of you to write to our very own attention specialist, Sheer Genius.  You may write Sheer Genius and ask questions about Play Attention, attention problems, education, behavior shaping, parenting concerns, peer relationships etc.!
Sheer Genius is here to help!
Who is Sheer Genius?
Sheer Genius is the virtual member of the Play Attention family. His outstanding knowledge and experience is incorporated into Play Attention to help guide you through our program every step of the way!
How do I submit a question?
To submit your question please click here or email sheergenius@playattention.net.  If your question is selected you will receive a personal email from Sheer Genius and your question/answer will be posted on our website as well as our Facebook page.  We will only use your first name if you provide it.
Sheer Genius looks forward to hearing from you!

Diet and ADHD Symptoms

The February 5, 2011 issue of The Lancet reports that researchers in the Netherlands and Belgium were able to significantly reduce ADHD symptoms through restrictive dietary measures.

This theory has long been advocated by such notable groups as The Feingold Association (http://www.feingold.org/). However, their studies have been limited to smaller groups and anecdotal evidence. While their findings have been compelling, medical doctors and adversarial attacks by the processed food industry quashed overall acceptance of dietary restriction. The NIMH give only limited credence to the theory.

Feingold and other advocates of the restrictive diet have suggested that the introduction of food additives can affect the human immune system sometimes causing reactions like hyperactivity, inattention, and even eczema, asthma and gastrointestinal problems. In light of research about food colorings and hyperactivity, the British have taken steps to eliminate certain preservatives and food dyes from their food supply.

The study published in the Lancet was funded by Foundation of Child and Behaviour, Foundation Nuts Ohra, Foundation for Children’s Welfare Stamps Netherlands, and the KF Hein Foundation.  The researchers placed  100 children from Belgium and the Netherlands into two groups: one that received the restrictive diet and the other that only received advice on healthy eating habits. The group that received only advice on healthy eating was the control group. All of the children had been diagnosed with ADHD and were between the ages of 4 and 8.

The children were placed on the restrictive diet for a period of five weeks. They were allowed to eat only rice, meat, vegetables, pears and water. Later, the children were allowed to additionally consume potatoes, fruits and wheat. The researchers assessed ADHD symptoms during this period.

Over the course of the next four weeks, researchers reintroduced processed foods into the restricted diet group. The researchers selected foods that were previously considered to negatively affect body or immune responses.

Nine children withdrew from the restrictive diet group. Attrition in all studies is common. Of the forty-one children who completed the restrictive diet program, 78 percent had a reduction in their ADHD symptoms, compared with no improvement in the controls. Assessment was performed using an ADHD symptom scale that ranges from 0 to 72 points. Higher scores in the scale indicate more severe symptoms. The average reduction was 24 points, a significant reduction.

Thirty children who demonstrated decreased ADHD symptoms resulting from the restrictive diet were selected for reintroduction of foods outside the restrictive diet. This was deemed the ‘challenge test.’ Nineteen of the thirty children had a relapse in symptoms on the challenge test. Sensitivity to foods thought to produce high immune response didn’t seem to produce any greater negative effects than foods thought to produce lower immune response.

Limitations of the study include restriction to ADHD; it cannot be discerned whether it would apply to ADD. Secondly, not all children responded to the restrictive diet. Of those who did respond, responses to foods seemed to be equal no matter what processed food was introduced back into the diet. Additionally, under this research design, it was not possible to have a blind control; parents knew what group their child was in. If they also knew the expected outcome of the study, it might have influenced the outcome.

On the practical side, the restrictive diet is very difficult to follow consistently. However, if your child seems to respond well when you remove certain processed foods, this research seems to support your observation although the certainty about diet and ADHD symptoms has not been clearly established by this study.

ADHD and the Western diet

A study published online in the international Journal of Attention Disorders examines the possible link between ADHD and a ‘Western-style’ diet in children.

The study was conducted by Perth’s Telethon Institute for Child Health Research in Australia. The researchers found that a diet typically consumed in the Western world consisting of ‘fast foods,’ sugar/corn syrup, processed meats and flour, fried, and refined foods nearly doubled the risk of an ADHD diagnosis. This Western diet is rich in total fat, saturated fat, refined sugar and sodium.

“We found a diet high in the Western pattern of foods was associated with more than double the risk of having an ADHD diagnosis
compared with a diet low in the Western pattern, after adjusting for numerous other social and family influences. We looked at the dietary patterns amongst the adolescents and compared the diet information against whether or not the adolescent had received a diagnosis of ADHD by the age of 14 years. In our research, 115 adolescents had been diagnosed with ADHD, 91 boys and 24 girls,” says Associate Professor Wendy Oddy.

The Perth researchers analyzed the dietary patterns of 1800 youth and separated them as having  ‘Healthy’ or ‘Western’ patterns. A diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and fish was designated as a healthy pattern.

Dr. Oddy added, “When we looked at specific foods, having an ADHD diagnosis was associated with a diet high in takeaway foods, processed meats, red meat, high fat dairy products and confectionary. We suggest that a Western dietary pattern may indicate the adolescent has a less optimal fatty acid profile, whereas a diet higher in omega-3 fatty acids is thought to hold benefits for mental health and optimal brain function. It also may be that the Western dietary pattern doesn’t provide enough essential micronutrients that are needed for brain function, particularly attention and concentration, or that a Western diet might contain more colors, flavors and additives that have been linked to an increase in ADHD symptoms. It may also be that impulsivity, which is a characteristic of ADHD, leads to poor dietary choices such as quick snacks when hungry.”

Of note, the scientists were unable to determine if poor diet causes ADHD or ADHD leads to poor dietary choices and cravings – a problem of antecedence.  Furthermore, the researchers had to determine and adjust for social and family influences. This, in itself could greatly skew final data. 

The British have performed similar studies examining the role of refined or processed foods and ADHD.  Certain food colorings were found to influence hyperactivity.  Knowing this, in addition to research that indicates better cognitive function through better diet, it would be wise to greatly reduce or totally extinguish consumption of fast food, refined and processed foods, etc. if one wishes to maximize one’s cognitive potential.

Diet alone will not solve the ADHD riddle. Cognitive training, memory training, behavioral shaping, and attention training are key ingredients to the solution.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and ADHD

While the topic of nutrition & ADHD is contentious, omega 3s have gained ground in the relief of ADHD symptoms.  

Respectable studies from Goteborg University in Sweden, University of South Australia, and Oxford University in the United Kingdom have shown that omega 3 fatty acids have reduced symptoms by as much as 50%. A more recent Norwegian study produced similar results. 

In the study performed at the University of South Australia, children were divided randomly into three groups for the first 15 weeks of the study. One group was given a fish oil & primrose oil combination; the second took the same combination plus a multivitamin/mineral supplement, and the third group took a placebo. During the second 15 weeks, the kids on the placebo were given the fish oil & primrose oil combination plus the multivitamin/mineral as well.

While the studies received little press, the results were quite good for the two 30-week fish-oil groups. They demonstrated 40%- 50% improvement in behavior while the 15-week group showed a 30% – 40% percent improvement.  

Ritalin and Concerta are the drugs most often prescribed for ADHD. The results actually were far better for fish oil when compared with results of studies of Ritalin and Concerta. Fish oils were more effective.

Let me make it clear that fish oil will not cure ADHD. Could it possibly mitigate symptoms for you? Possibly. According to Dr. Andrew Weil  “Levels of omega-3s in the plasma and red blood cells of children with ADHD are lower than in kids who don’t have the disorder.”

As attention issues are only the tip of the ADHD iceberg, it’s not a good idea to use fish oils as your only intervention. I strongly recommend using Play Attention; a cognitive program to improve attention, memory, visual tracking, time on-task, motor skills, and discriminatory processing.

Study shows Fatty Acids may be helpful for ADHD- Part 2

Reprinted in part by permission of Dr. David Rabiner from his newsletter at www.helpforadd.com

However, a study published recently in the Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics largely addresses this concern, and provides new evidence on the promising nature of this treatment approach (Sinn, N., & Bryan, J. [2007]. Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. JDBP, 28, 82-92.].

The study began with 167 7-12 year old children in South Australia – 128 boys and 38 girls – who had been recruited through media ads, school newspapers looking for children with “ADHD-related learning and behavioral difficulties”. Parents who inquired about their child’s participation were asked to complete the 12-item Conners ADHD index on their child; children whose scores fell in the top 2.5% of the regular population were eligible provided they had not used stimulant medication or any form of omega-3 supplementation in the prior 3 months.

Study Design

The study employed a placebo-controlled design in which children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups:

Group 1 – These children received omega-3 fatty acid supplementation capsules containing 400 mg fish oil and 100 mg evening primrose oil with active ingredients eicosapentaenoic acid (EPQ, 93 mg), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 29 mg), gammalinolenic acid (GLA, 10 mg), and vitamin E (1.8 mg). Children in this group received 6 capsules per day. In addition, to learn whether a multi-vitamin enhanced any benefits of the fatty acid supplementation treatment, they also received a daily multi-vitamin tablet. ** Please note that I do not know the brand used or where these capsules can be obtained. **

Group 2 – These children received the omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as described above with no multi-vitamin supplement.

Group 3 – These children received placebo capsules that appeared identical to the fatty acid supplementation capsules received by children in groups 1 and 2. The placebo capsules contained palm oil, which was not expected to have any impact on ADHD symptoms.

Capsules were administered by parents who did not know whether their child was receiving the fatty acid supplement or placebo. Before treatment, and 15 weeks after treatment began, parents and teachers completed the Conners Rating Scale, a standardized behavior rating form that inquires about ADHD symptoms along with a number of other emotional and behavioral difficulties including oppositional behavior, cognitive problems, social problems, and anxiety.

At the beginning of week 16, children in the placebo group were switched to the active fatty acid supplement for the next 15 weeks. Parents were not aware that this switch had occurred. Children in groups 1 and 2 continued with their treatment regimen during this time. At the end of 30 weeks, parents and teachers completed the Conners Rating Scale for a third and final time.

The design of this study enabled the researchers to learn whether: 1) omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was associated with reduced ADHD symptoms, as well as other difficulties, reported by parents and teachers; 2) whether adding a multi-vitamin supplement enhanced any benefits associated with fatty acid supplementation alone; and, 3) whether any gains that emerged after 15 weeks remained stable, or even increased, during 15 additional weeks of treatment.

Results

Parent Ratings – Of the 167 children who began in the study, 35 dropped out during the first 15 weeks and an additional 23 children dropped out during the second 15 weeks. Dropouts occurred with equal frequency across the 3 groups; however, those who withdrew during the initial 15 weeks had higher scores on the Conners ADHD Index at study entry. Thus, although all participants had extremely high ratings on the Conners when the study began, those whose problems were most severe were more likely to drop out.

Parent ratings obtained at baseline and after 15 weeks indicated that children receiving fatty acid supplementation (groups 1 and 2) showed significant improvement compared to children receiving placebo. Specifically, significant improvements were found for inattentive symptoms, hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, cognitive problems, and oppositional behavior. Group differences in social problems and anxiety were not evident. In general, the treatment effects, although statistically significant, were modest in size and smaller than what has generally been reported for medication treatment. There was no evidence that adding a multi-vitamin to the fatty acid supplementation treatment was associated with any additional benefit.

As noted above, children in groups 1 and 2 continued receiving supplements for an additional 15 weeks and children who had been receiving placebo were switch to active supplements for weeks 16-30. Parent ratings provided after 30 weeks indicated that children switched to active treatment now showed significant reductions in inattentive symptoms, hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, cognitive problems, and oppositional behavior. The magnitude of these changes was comparable to what was seen in groups 1 and 2 during the initial 15 weeks.

Of particular note is that children in groups 1 and 2 continued to show reduction in parent reported symptoms during the second half of the study. Thus, although the benefits evident at the end of week 15 were significant but modest, by the end of week 30 the benefits had increased in magnitude and were now roughly similar to what is commonly observed in studies of medication treatment. Specifically, inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms showed a reduction of about 1 standard deviation from what had been reported prior to treatment.

Teacher Ratings – In stark contrast to the significant and clinically meaningful results found for parent ratings, no significant improvements were observed for teacher ratings at either 15 or 30 weeks.

Summary and Implications

For parents and professionals interested in the use of fatty acid supplementation as a treatment for children’s ADHD symptoms, results from this study present somewhat of a dilemma.

On the one hand, parents who were blind to their child’s treatment status observed significant improvement in their child’s core ADHD symptoms, as well as reductions in cognitive problems and oppositional behavior. By the end of 30 weeks, the magnitude of this improvement was substantial, and not dissimilar from what is often seen in medication treatment studies. As noted above, these benefits were linked to fatty acid supplementation alone, as the addition of a multi-vitamin provided no additional benefit.

On the other hand, however, no comparable improvements were evident in the teacher ratings of children’s behavior. Thus, despite clear improvements observed by parents, children’s behavior at school did not change, at least as reported by their teachers.

The authors suggest that the parent ratings may have been more valid than those provided by teachers because many children had multiple teachers, some children changed schools, class sizes were large (about 30 children per teacher), and children were out on holiday for a substantial time during the study.

While these factors may have contributed to unreliability in the teacher ratings, it is problematic to use this as a basis for discounting the absence of benefits observed in school. Instead, a more prudent conclusion is that treatment was not associated with behavioral improvements for children at school. Perhaps benefits at school would have been evident had the treatment continued beyond 30 weeks, but there is no way to know whether this would have been the case.

Because school-related problems are such an important part of the impairment experienced by children with ADHD, this represents an important limitation on the use of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. However, significant results for teacher ratings as well as for reading and spelling achievement have been reported in a prior study and it is premature to conclude that this approach does not help with symptoms in the school setting.

The authors discuss several limitations to their study. First, as described above, children with more severe ADHD symptoms when the study began were more likely to drop out. The authors note that because treatment with fatty acid supplementation can take 8-12 weeks before any improvement is observed, it would not be advisable as a stand alone treatment when a child’s symptoms are especially severe, and where more immediate symptomatic relief is required.

They also note that because they were unable to take biochemical analyses of children’s nutritional status prior to treatment, they do not know whether participants had nutritional deficiencies to begin with and whether the supplementation eliminated those deficiencies. As this is supposed to be the active mechanism of this treatment approach, such analyses are necessary to document the reason for the apparent benefits.

Finally, a nice addition to this study would have been the inclusion of standardized academic achievement measures, which should be incorporated into future research on this intervention approach.

The authors conclude their report by noting that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could provide a “…safe health option for some children with ADHD symptoms”. Certainly, results from this trial, as well as from prior studies of this approach, indicate that this is an extremely promising intervention and one that warrants further investigation. It would be particularly important to replicate the results obtained with parents, to document that improvements in behavioral and/or academic functioning at school are also obtained, and to identify those children with elevated ADHD symptoms who are most likely to benefit from this approach. Finally, documenting that the treatment is most helpful for children with fatty acid deficiencies to begin with would be a significant addition to the current literature on this approach.

In the interim, parents interested in this intervention should carefully discuss the pros and cons with their child’s health care provider. It is also important to recognize that while promising results have been obtained with this approach, the efficacy of this method has not yet been conclusively established. Based on the results obtained in this study, it should be clear that any benefits that are evident at home may not translate to observable benefits at school.

As with any treatment for ADHD, many children would be expected to have residual difficulties even if the supplementation proved to be helpful, and would thus require additional intervention methods. Careful monitoring of the child’s ongoing response to this treatment, or to any treatment, is thus essential so that any such residual difficulties can be identified and addressed.

Study shows Fatty Acids may be helpful for ADHD – Part 1

While pharmacological (drug) intervention is usually the first line of therapy for ADHD, many children cannot tolerate medication. They sometimes develop tics, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, etc. Furthermore, the majority of studies documenting benefits of stimulant medication are relatively short-term, show no true correlation to improved behavior, improved grades, or improved social interaction. Data showing that stimulant medication improves the long-term prognosis for children with ADHD are scant.

Many people currently use dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids to maintain heart health. It has been suggested in several studies that certain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may positively affect many neuro-developmental and psychiatric conditions. Several studies have demonstrated that ADHD children have low blood levels of HUFAs. This suggests that increasing HUFA levels via dietary supplements could enhance brain functioning and reduce ADHD symptoms.

Two studies are noted here, one in the UK and one in Australia. Both studies show promising data on HUFAs and ADHD.

The UK study involved 117 5-12 year old children. Approximately 33% of the children were girls. The children were diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Although none of the children were formally diagnosed with ADHD, many of them possessed highly elevated levels of ADHD symptoms. This presented a severe limitation to the study; since the participants had not been screened for ADHD, it is not possible to extrapolate the results to ADHD children.

Aside from the aforementioned limitation, the study was well conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to receive dietary fatty acid supplementation treatment or a placebo over 3 months. Outcome measures included:

  • standardized assessments of reading and spelling achievement
  • Conners teacher ratings of children’s ADHD symptoms.

Results from this study were extremely encouraging:

  • Reading and spelling scores: before treatment, average reading and spelling achievement scores were about 1 year below age level for children in both groups. After 3 months, children receiving fatty acid supplementation gained an average of 9.5 months in reading and 6.6 months in spelling. Children in the placebo group gained only 3.3 months in reading and 1.2 months in spelling.
  • Prior to the study, the average Conners teacher rating scale for ADHD was elevated for both groups. After 3 months, scores for treated children showed a significant decline while scores for placebo children were essentially unchanged. 16 children in the fatty acid group presented clinically elevated ADHD scale scores. After 3 months, 7 no longer fell in this range. Among children in the placebo group, only 1 of 16 children showed this same improvement.

Again, while this is significant data, one must be cautious of the extrapolation to a diagnosed ADHD child. It is a promising study.